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Fragrance and Essential Oil > Essential oil & Carrier Oil
Essential Oils are a source of great pleasure and give a sense of well being both to body and soul. An essential oil is a concentrated, aromatic, volatile liquid composed of small oil-like molecules. They consist of a complicated combination of naturally occurring chemicals, which the plant itself produces through photosynthesis. They are called essential 'oils' but in fact contain no fatty substances in the same way that, e.g. Almond Oil does. Because they are volatile they do not create oil stains.

Essential Oil is created in small cavities in the cellular structure of plants, either in the roots, petals, seeds or peel (as in the case of citrus oils). The oil is extracted either by distillation or cold pressing. Essential Oils occur at different levels in different plants, with some plants producing more than others. For instance, 100 kg of petals are required to produce 20ml of Rose Oil, while 100 Kg of leaves will yield 1-1.5 litres of Peppermint Oil. This means that the cost of oils will vary but that doesn't make Peppermint Oil less effective than Rose Oil. This article is a brief introduction to the most commonly used ones.




» Uses of Essential Oils:
» To make perfumes
» To add fragrance to skin care products
» As drops to add to a vaporiser or for use in a spraying flask to create a certain atmosphere, to prevent a cold or simply to freshen the air
» In baths, footbaths, or hand baths, e.g. to warm or relax cold limbs or, when slightly colder water is used, to create a stimulating effect
» In compresses e.g. to cool sunburn
» In massage and other skin care oils e.g. to increase blood circulation
» To inhale directly from the bottle or from a vaporiser e.g. to aid relaxation or to clear congested air passages
» Safety Guidelines

When using Essential Oils it is very important to adhere to the recommended dosage to achieve the desired effect. The wrong dosage (which is often the temptation to use too much) can result in skin damage, headache, nausea or similar. Some Essential Oils are not suitable for use during pregnancy or in conjunction with high blood pressure, while some should be used sparingly on the skin. (See directions for individual oils).
» Smaller Droppers
Most Essential Oils are thin and require a smaller dropper where percentage dosing is as follows:
0.1% = 2 drops / 100ml
0.2% = 4 drops / 100ml
0.25% = 6 drops / 100ml
0.5% = 12 drops / 100ml
0.75% = 18 drops / 100ml
1% = 25 drops / 100ml
1.5% = 32 drops / 100ml
2% = 50 drops / 100ml
2.5% = 62 drops / 100ml
3% = 75 drops / 100ml
4% = 100 drops / 100ml
» Larger Droppers
Vetivert, Sandalwood and Benzoin are thicker Oils and require a larger dropper, which releases larger drops. Percentage dosing for these Oils will be:
1% = 20 drops / 100ml
2% = 40 drops / 100ml
2.5% = 50 drops / 100ml
3% = 60 drops / 100ml
4% = 80 drops / 100ml
Using Essential Oils to freshen up rooms is an excellent and pleasant way of enhancing everyday life as well as creating atmosphere for festive or special occasions. Fragrances and blends of fragrances can be used to create a special effect—Romantic, for that sacred time with your partner, or Festive, to make that party of yours unforgettable. Or use the Essential Oil you feel intuitively drawn to use at that particular time—e.g. Lavender for serenity and Bergamot for self-confidence. To freshen up your home or room, you can use an Essential Oil Fragrance Burner, a Spraying Flask or an Aromadrops air freshener.
» Essential Oil Fragrance Burner
Used for larger spaces where the effect needs to last for a while. The bigger the space, the more Oil will be required. Because Essential Oils evaporate spreading their aroma around the room, you may want to add more Oil after a time to maintain the effect. Top Note Oils such as Citrus and Peppermint evaporate more quickly than the Middle and Base Note Oils.

» Spraying Flask
Used to create a short-term, immediate effect in a room or other space. Can be used in the car to invigorate you or to tone down the smell inside the car. When there are colds around you can spray with e.g. lemon or after vacuuming you can use your favourite oil or blend of Oils. Another tip is to spray covers, mattresses and pillows during airing with e.g. Lemon and Lavender to give them a clean, fresh smell.

» Aromadrops
Used to emit fragrance over a longer period of time in smaller spaces such as cupboards, toilets, halls or chests of drawers. In the car, use Peppermint to help you concentrate and at the same time counteract carsickness. In the home or at work, an Aromadrops can be displayed as part of the decor.

» Drops Used Directly
In your rubbish bin or compost bucket to counteract bad odours, or put a few drops on your vacuum cleaner filter so the air being blown out is filled with the cleansing, antiseptic smell of Lemon, or apply something uplifting and stabilising like Geranium. If you don't want to blend the oils yourself you can purchase our ready made blends.

» Fragrance Notes
Essential Oils can also be classified according to how they smell, e.g. Rosy or Minty. This method of classification has nothing to do with which part of the plant the Oil comes from but rather with how the Oil smells. Sometimes the difference between Woody and Herbaceous or Spicy and Herbaceous smells can be hard to define. You may also have your own ideas, which differ from what we are suggesting here. It is naturally up to you and what you think, as the creator of your own perfume, is what is most important.

Woody Notes: Cedarwood, Sandalwood,
Root Notes: Benzoin, Patchouli, Vetiver
Citrus Notes: Bergamot, Lemon, Orange.
Spicy Notes: Aniseed, Clove, Cinnamon, Black pepper, Ginger.
Rosy Notes: Geranium, Rose Absolute, Palmarosa.
Orange Notes: Neroli, Petitgrain
Herbaceous Notes: Lavender, Rosemary
Floral Notes: Jasmine Absolute, Ylang Ylang
Minty Notes: Peppermint
Like their essential oil counterparts, absolutes are highly aromatic liquids extracted from plants. Absolutes, however, are extracted in a complex manner that requires the use of chemical solvents that are later removed during the final stages of production. As a rule, absolutes are more concentrated than essential oil.

Introducing essential oils into your lifestyle can be quite easy, fun, and therapeutically beneficial. Essential oils can be used in making homemade lotions, facial toners, shampoos, perfumes, soaps, shower gels, and other natural products. Additionally, essential oils are often blended for their therapeutic synergistic abilities. The most important use of essential oil is for its aromatherapy value.

Aromatherapy is the practice of using volatile plant oils, including essential oils , for psychological and physical well-being.

Essential oils, which are the pure "essence" of a plant, have been found to provide both psychological and physical benefits when used correctly and safely. There are many essential oils. The Essential Oil Profiles area details over some essential oils, which are commonly utilized in aromatherapy.

Carrier oils also referred to as base oils or vegetable oils are used to dilute essential oils and absolutes before applying to the skin. They “carry” the essential oil onto the skin. Some of the Fragona International specialties are as follows-

Almond, Sweet

Botanical Name: Prunus amygdalus var. dulcus, Aroma: Light, slightly sweet and nutty, Texture: Slightly oily, leaves a slight oily feeling on the skin. Absorbs semi-quickly, Color: Virtually clear with a tinge of yellow.Notes: Sweet Almond oil is considered to be a good all-purpose carrier oil to keep on hand and is moderately priced.

Name: Olea europaea, Aroma: Typical aroma of olive oil used in cooking (smells somewhat like olives), Texture: Heavy and rather oily, Color: Light to medium green, Notes: If not carefully used or used in a small dilution with another carrier, it may overpower a blend.

Name: Arachis hypogeae, Aroma: Like Pecan, it is extremely light in aroma with a slight fatty, nutty quality, Texture: Thick and leaves a very oily film on the skin, Color: Virtually clear, Notes: Peanut oil should not be used by anyone that has an allergy to peanuts. Because of it's oiliness, it is said to be a good choice for inclusion in massage blends. It has been said that it is a good oil to use for those with arthritis.

Name: Sesamum indicumAroma: Medium with a distinctive sweet, nutty sesame scent. May overpower a blend if not diluted with another carrier oil.Texture: Mildly thick, leaves an oily film on the skin.Color: Light yellow.Notes: Sesame oil may overpower a blend if not diluted with another carrier oil.

Name: Helianthus annuus, Aroma: Faint and sweet, Texture: Thin and does not leave an oily residue, Color: Virtually clear with a tinge of yellow, Notes: When choosing sunflower oil, strive to get unrefined oil.
Essential oil profiles

Information in the oil descriptions in the list is arranged according to the following sequence.

Plant Name, Botanical name, Geographical source, Description and usage information, Warnings for Aromatherapy use such as SKIN: Dilute well. Skin irritant. SUN: Avoid use in sun. PG: Avoid if pregnant. BP: People with high blood pressure should avoid. EP: People with epilepsy should avoid.

Aniseed oil , Illicium verum , India, Spain, China, Italy, Morocco - Added to perfumes for its rich, sweet fragrance. Aromatherapy: cheering, sense enhancing, mildly euphoric. PG

Sweet Basil oil , Ocimum basilicum , India, France, United States, Egypt - Floral, spicy, green odor is excellent for use in perfumes. Aromatherapy: clarifying, uplifting, energizing, strengthening, refreshing. PG , SKIN

Benzoin resinoid , Styrax Benzoin , Samoa, Java, Sumatra, Borneo - Used for centuries as incense. Today Benzoin is widely applied in perfumes and in potpourri mixtures. Aromatherapy: purifying, warming, penetrating, energizing. SKIN

Bergamot Oil , Citrus bergamia , Italy - From an uncommon citrus fruit. Its lively, fruity scent is excellent when used as a room spray. WARNING: Bergamot oil used undiluted on exposed skin can cause severe burning. Aromatherapy: uplifting, Norma ling, confidence building. SUN

Black Pepper oil , Piper nigrum , India, Indonesia, Malaysia - One of the oldest known spices. Particularly interesting effects when used in perfume blends. For example a blend of black pepper and ylang ylang will produce a carnation-like aroma. Aromatherapy: warming, vitalizing, invigorating.

Cedarwood oil , Cedrus deodora , India - woody, balsamic aroma used in soaps and perfumery to lend a warm, well-rounded quality. Cedarwood oil can be used in aromatherapy lamps to scent rooms.
Aromatherapy: grounding, meditative, relaxing. PG

Cinnamon Leaf oil , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Indonesia, Sri Lanka - The aroma is more reminiscent of cloves than cinnamon. Aromatherapy: refreshing, vitalizing. SKIN

Citronella oil , Cymbopogon nardus , India,Sri Lanka, Java - Lemony, grassy aroma. Used for scenting room and outdoor sprays, as well as household products. Aromatherapy: purifying, vitalizing. PG

Clove Bud oil , Syzygiuym aromaticum , Madagascar, Indonesia, Comoro Islands - Used in mouthwash, toothpaste, chewing gum and dental preparations. The oil has a powerful, spicy, fruity aroma. WARNING: Clove oil is highly irritating - avoid contact with your skin . Aromatherapy: warming, sense enhancing. SKIN , PG

Eucalyptus Lemon oil , Eucalyptus citriodora ,India, Brazil - Fresh and grassy with a camphorous, lemony aroma and sweet, balsamic undertone. It's used with other eucalyptus oils to scent household products. Aromatherapy: purifying, relaxing.

Eucalyptus oil , Eucalyptus globules , India, Spain, Portugal, Australia, France, China - Often used to scent topical preparations such as liniments and salves. It also serves as an ingredient in cold-care products like inhalants, cough drops and syrups. Aromatherapy: purifying, invigorating, cooling.

Geranium oil , Pelargonium graveolens , India, France, Morocco, China - Delightfully sweet scent. An important ingredient in many types of fragrances, it has a powerful, leafy-rose aroma with minty undertones. It's also used in skin care products for both its fragrance and astringent cleansing properties. Aromatherapy: balancing, normalizing. PG

Ginger oil , Zingiber officinale , India, China, Jamaica - earthy, lemony aroma. A wonderful modifier in blends containing Vetiver and citrus oils. Aromatherapy: warming, strengthening, anchoring.

Jasmine Absolute , Jasminum grandiflorum , India, Morocco, France, Italy, Egypt - A very powerful fragrance with a full, rich, honey-like sweetness. The fragrance of jasmine is a component in so many perfumes that there is an old saying, "No perfume without jasmine." A small amount goes a long way. Aromatherapy: calming, relaxing, sensual, exotic, romantic.

Lavender oil , Lavandula angustifolia , France, Bulgaria, Croatia - The most essential oil. Lavender has a classic scent for perfume and a wide array of skin and hair products. It has a sweet, balsamic, floral aroma.
Aromatherapy: balancing, relaxing, soothing, gently clarifying, normalizing.

Lemon oil , Citrus limon , United States, Spain, Italy - widely used in beauty care, soaps and cleaners. This oil is cold-pressed from the rind; three dozen lemons are used to produce each 15 grams. Aromatherapy: uplifting, refreshing, cheering. SKIN , SUN

Lemongrass oil , Cymbopogon citrates , India, Guatemala, Haiti, Sri Lanka - Great for oily skin and hair. It has a powerful, lemony aroma and is a preferred fragrance in room and outdoor sprays, soaps and detergents. Aromatherapy: vitalizing, cleansing. SKIN

Orange oil Sweet , Citrus sinensis , Brazil, Israel, United States - One of the most popular oils in the world. In perfumery, sweet orange is often used as the heart of a floral blend. Aromatherapy: cheering, refreshing, uplifting. SUN

Palmarosa oil , Cymbopogon martini , India, Brazil - Like its relatives citronella and lemongrass, Palmarosa has a grassy, lemony scent, yet is tinged with a floral-rose tone. Effective in skin care products and often used to scent cosmetics. Aromatherapy: vitalizing, cleansing.

Patchouli oil, Pogostemon cablin, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia - a widely used fixative in perfumes. The very rich aroma is earthy, sweet and balsamic. Popularized during the Flower Power movement of the Sixties. Aromatherapy: romantic, soothing, exotic, sensual.

Peppermint oil , Mentha piperita , United States, England, Italy - Strong, cool and minty. Peppermint oil has a strikingly refreshing aroma. Aromatherapy: vitalizing, refreshing, cooling. SKIN , PG

Peru Balsam , Myroxylon pereirae , El Salvador - Blends well with ylang ylang, patchouli, Petitgrain, sandalwood and rose absolute. Creates a relaxing, balsamic, vanilla-like scent in perfumes, soaps and lotions. Aromatherapy: meditative, warming, comforting. SKIN

Petitgrain oil , Citrus aurantium , France, Italy, Morocco, South America - Made from the leaves and twigs of the bitter orange tree. This oil has a fresh, sweet fragrance with a woody undertone. An important ingredient in perfumery, Petitgrain blends well with citrus and flower oils. Aromatherapy: relaxing, soothing, stabilizing.

Rose Absolute , Rosa centifolia , Morocco, France - A sweet, deep, long-lasting aroma. Rose absolute is an economical alternative to rose otto essential oil. Used extensively in medium- and high-priced perfumes of all types for its aroma and fixative qualities. Aromatherapy: romantic, supportive, gently uplifting. PG

Rosemary oil , Rosmarinus officinalis , France, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia - Used in hair care, fragrance and cosmetics. Use on dark hair to condition and bring out color highlights. Aromatherapy: clarifying, warming, invigorating. PG , BP , EP

Sandalwood oil , Santalum album , India - Rare perfume used in ancient rituals as a spiritually purifying ointment. Sandalwood is a valuable fixative, which blends well with many other oils. Aromatherapy: relaxing, centering, exotic, and sensual.

Spearmint oil , Mentha spicata , India,United States, China - energizing to the mind and body. Use a few drops in bath water for its refreshing effect. Make a facial steam of spearmint oil in a pot of boiling water to help cleanse and refine pores. Aromatherapy: refreshing, cooling, gently vitalizing. Tea Tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, Australia - Delivers a warm, spicy, medicinal aroma. It's used in colognes and aftershaves, and as a scent in room sprays, antiseptics, shampoo, acne creams, soaps and other SKIN care products. Aromatherapy: cleansing, purifying, uplifting. SKIN

Thyme Red , Thymus vulgaris , Spain - an intense, herbaceous aroma and flavor. Thyme is used to scent soaps, colognes and aftershaves. WARNING: Can irritate the skin; use with caution. Aromatherapy: cleansing, purifying. SKIN , PG , BP

Vetiver oil , Vetiveria zizanioides , Reunion, India, Indonesia, Philippines - A rich, earthy scent. It's used as a perfume fixative, like sandalwood. Aromatherapy: soothing, calming, relaxing, anchoring.

Ylang Ylang oil , Cananga odorata , Comoro Islands, Reunion, Madagascar, Indonesia - Distilled from the flowers of the cananga tree. Ylang Ylang has an intense, floral, jasmine-like aroma and is used in exotic and floral perfumes. Aromatherapy: romantic, alluring, exotic, relaxing.


CHAMPAKA- Michelia Champaka, PANDANUS (KEWRA)- Pandanus odoratissimus, TUBEROSE- Polyanthes tuberosa, Rose Absolute, Rosa centifolia, Jasmine Absolute, Jasminum grandiflorum,

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